Welcome to Season 5 Episode 3 where we talk about some of the ways the ocean can make rocks and minerals.
You can listen to the show here:
I have been looking at different ways to get transcripts but I haven’t found a good solution for me yet. So in lieu of a full transcript here are some notes and the images promised.
The Ocean The ocean covers 70% of the surface area of the earth and is 96.5% water, 2.5% salts, and the rest is dissolved inorganic and organic materials and particulates. Sea level at any location is a dance between the volume of water in the ocean and tectonic uplift and down-dropping of the coast.
Evaporation This is one of the major ways that the ocean makes rocks. Compounds like salts concentrate in areas where a body of ocean water gets cut off. This can be through sea level change, tectonic changes, or man made intervention. As the water evaporates the concentration of salts and compounds increases until they start to crystalize out and form large deposits. The two maid evaporate minerals are Halite (Salt) and Gypsum. Table salt is mined from these deposits and sea salt is salt that was formed by modern evaporation methods.
Spontaneous Precipitation This is my favorite way the ocean makes rocks. Like the compounds that generate the minerals halite and gypsum, the compounds that form the calcium carbonate that make up Limestone come from dissolved compounds. In this case something will trigger a spontaneous crystallization of calcite or aragonite which will rain down to the sea floor. Over time this calcareous mud becomes limestone.
Biogenic Much like limestone, Chert is formed by things slowly dropping out of the water column. In this case chert is a siliceous material meaning it is made with silica. Chert is made from the hard parts of diatoms, silicoflagellates, and radiolarians which are algae and protozoa. As they die their skeletons build up in the deep ocean over time and form chert in large areas or small patches within other deposits. Another rock that forms this way is Chalk but this forms from plankton with calcite shells and skeletons.
Anthropogenic In collaboration with the ocean, humans also make stones. The most obvious of this is Sea Glass which is the end product of human trash (glass from various sources) being introduced to the sea and worked in the shallow environment. Another anthropogenic material is the newly discovered Plastic rocks which are starting to form in beach environments. This is likely due to the increasing concentration of plastics and microplastics in the oceans.
If you have any questions or comments you can leave a comment here, on the social media posts or through email.
Welcome back to Borealis Meditation and welcome to season 5! You can listen to the episode here:
Transcript Available here: (work in progress check back soon)
In this episode we talk about the eruption in Tonga on Jan. 15th of Hunga volcano. This eruption was spectacular and in this episode I go over the eruption but also some context in terms of how we monitor volcanoes and tsunami early warning systems.
I have some extra reading for this episode I will put at the end of this post. Also I am working on having transcripts for all my episodes this season. They may take a little time to come out and will definitely be a learning curve but I am working on making my content more accessible.
Please remember to like and share episodes so others can find them. If you want to support my work I have a Patreon and Ko-fi (current goal is for a fancy paid service to help with the transcripts because you all covered my hosting costs already!)
Further reading: NASA post on the eruption: HERE Global Volcanism Program page for the volcano: HERE (You can read weekly updates on each volcano that has activity) NOAA Post on this eruption and the future of tsunami research: HERE An update on the undersea cable situation: HERE
Join me as I chat with Nicholas Pearson about working with crystals, trends in the crystal industry, why quartz pebbles are the best, and talking about licking rocks. We get into if you need to cleanse and charge your crystals and a whole bunch more! Curious enough yet? Good. This was a lot of fun!
Catch up with Nicholas Pearson all over the web! Instagram HERE Twitter HERE facebook HERE Tiktok HERE Website HERE
This is part 2 of a two part episode on being a responsible crystal consumer. See part 1 here: Crystal Ethics – Extraction In this episode we talk about the supply chain post extraction. To review these are my crystals series episodes:
Music played with Permission: S.J. Tucker – Wild Times can be purchased through Bandcamp Keep up to date with S.J. Tucker’s online website & twitter Next Online show March 19 Tickets available soon through “online concert thing”
Well, we did it. The clock has rolled over and it is now 2021. At least on a western calendar. The near year for the Chinese Lunar calendar isn’t until February 12th, in Nepal the New Year’s day for 2077 is 14th April. All of this is to say that time just… is! And calendars are human constructs. So, make your own!
I thought this would be a good time to reshare an older episode on making your own calendar.
I started a worksheet after I started working on my calendar this year. Hope it helps!
P.S. If you are good at design and wanted to help with my handouts and worksheets I would love to hear from you!